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            当前位置:首页 > 新闻中心 > 新闻中心 > 景观设计要注重的三方面细节

            景观设计要注重的三方面细节

            来源:  更新时间:2022-02-16
            任何建筑都处于特定的自然环境中,与周围环境有一定的关系。别墅是乡村风景名胜区的住宅建筑,主要让人们享受大自然的空气、阳光、溪流、流水、森林和原野。这种建筑与自然环境有着非常密切的关系。别墅的设计者非常注重地形和环境的选择和利用。寻求建筑与环境的有机联系,顺应地形起伏变化,因地制宜安排空间,根据周围自然风貌安排不同功能的空间并决定其“围合”与“贯通”,从外部组合处理到内部空间组织安排都考虑自然环境对建筑的影响,达到建筑与自然风光的有机结合,达到景观设计的目的。
            Any building is in a specific natural environment and has a certain relationship with the surrounding environment. Villas are residential buildings in rural scenic spots, which mainly allow people to enjoy the air, sunshine, streams, running water, forests and fields of nature. This kind of building has a very close relationship with the natural environment. Villa designers pay great attention to the selection and utilization of terrain and environment. Seek the organic connection between the building and the environment, adapt to the ups and downs of the terrain, arrange the space according to local conditions, arrange the space with different functions according to the surrounding natural features, and determine its "enclosure" and "connection". Consider the impact of the natural environment on the building from the external combination to the internal space organization and arrangement, so as to achieve the organic combination of the building and the natural scenery, Achieve the purpose of landscape design.
            1、别墅景观设计应注重与自然风光的结合
            1. Villa landscape design should pay attention to the combination with natural scenery
            别墅具有特殊的户外活动和观景功能,使其与自然风光有着非常密切的关系。在建筑处理中,常采用各种手法将自然风光带入别墅环境。此外,由于它多位于风景优美的郊区,也有义务为风景增色。集借景、用景、造景、点景于一体,将建筑与自然充分结合,让人置身于自然之中,让建筑成为自然风光中不可或缺的元素。
            The villa has special outdoor activities and viewing functions, which makes it closely related to the natural scenery. In architectural treatment, various methods are often used to bring the natural scenery into the villa environment. In addition, because it is mostly located in the beautiful suburbs, it is also obliged to add color to the scenery. It integrates borrowing scenery, using scenery, creating scenery and spot scenery, fully combines architecture with nature, puts people in nature, and makes architecture an indispensable element in natural scenery.
            晴帘、陡瀑、高山峭壁、青石绿树……大自然提供的这些丰富的景观设计因素是别墅的独特优势。对于其他建筑来说是罕见的,所以建筑师需要充分发挥他们的天性特色化,创造各种条件,让居民对周边景色尽收眼底。以上海别墅项目为例,上海水资源丰富,多水、多河、多湖是其地形地貌的一大特点,水体在气温、降水等方面易于维护。因此,对水的广泛而系统的利用成为上海别墅项目的重要景观特色。有的项目甚至对土地进行分水、填水,把别墅放在水中的“岛”上,打造水乡特色。如中海翡翠湖畔采用一湖五岛的规划格局。项目以20000m2的带状湖面为轴线,社区总水域面积近60000m2。居民楼散布在五个岛上,由几座桥相连。
            Sunny curtains, steep waterfalls, high mountains and cliffs, blue stones and green trees... These rich landscape design factors provided by nature are the unique advantages of the villa. It is rare for other buildings, so architects need to give full play to their natural characteristics and create various conditions to give residents a panoramic view of the surrounding scenery. Taking the villa project in Shanghai as an example, Shanghai is rich in water resources. More water, rivers and lakes are a major feature of its landform. The water body is easy to maintain in terms of temperature and precipitation. Therefore, the extensive and systematic utilization of water has become an important landscape feature of Shanghai villa project. Some projects even divide and fill the land with water, and put the villa on the "island" in the water to create the characteristics of water town. For example, the planning pattern of one lake and five islands is adopted by the Bank of Zhonghai feicui lake. The project takes 20000m2 banded Lake as the axis, and the total water area of the community is nearly 60000m2. Residential buildings are scattered on five islands and connected by several bridges.
            2、别墅景观设计应突出借景
            2. Villa landscape design should highlight borrowing scenery
            “借景”与“造景”是目前别墅景观设计中基本的两种理念。“借景”就是借用外部景观资源,如自然山水、人文景点等;“造景”是打造小区内部景观,改造小区人居环境。两者结合构成“双景别墅”,是不少别墅项目的重要卖点。在社区室内景观的营造上,分为“自然”和“人工”两个方面。一是巧妙利用当地内部自然条件,如河流、坡地、植物等;二是不惜一切代价打造人工景观。景观设计手法日益多样化,既有本土化元素,也有异域化产品;既有传统风格,也有大胆前卫的作品。
            "Borrowing scenery" and "creating scenery" are two basic concepts in villa landscape design. "Borrowing scenery" refers to borrowing external landscape resources, such as natural mountains and rivers, cultural scenic spots, etc; "Landscaping" is to create the internal landscape of the community and transform the residential environment of the community. The combination of the two forms a "double view villa", which is an important selling point of many villa projects. In the construction of community indoor landscape, it is divided into "natural" and "artificial". First, make clever use of local internal natural conditions, such as rivers, slopes, plants, etc; The second is to create artificial landscapes at all costs. Landscape design techniques are increasingly diversified, including both localized elements and exotic products; It has both traditional style and bold avant-garde works.
            近年来,打造“生态”景观不再是一句口号,而是实实在在地落到实处。其基本思路是通过各种技术使人工景观终发展成为一个具有生命力的小型生态群落。比如,在水体的打造上,很多别墅的人工湖采用软底、机械增氧,模拟天然湖泊的生态构成,依托天然生物净水,让景观具有生命力的同时有效节约成本。此外,动植物物种的选择、特殊地形的利用等,也各有千秋。一个可行的景观,易于维护,易于与居住者互动,并能从视觉、听觉、嗅觉和空气质量方面给居住者带来愉悦。
            In recent years, creating "ecological" landscape is no longer a slogan, but actually implemented. The basic idea is to develop the artificial landscape into a small ecological community with vitality through various technologies. For example, in the construction of water body, many artificial lakes in villas adopt soft bottom and mechanical oxygenation to simulate the ecological composition of natural lakes, and rely on natural biological water purification to make the landscape viable and effectively save costs. In addition, the selection of animal and plant species and the utilization of special terrain also have their own advantages. A viable landscape, easy to maintain, easy to interact with residents, and can bring pleasure to residents in terms of vision, hearing, smell and air quality.
            3、注重硬景的营造
            3. Pay attention to the construction of hard landscape
            别墅硬景主要有高大坚实的黄石挡墙、城堡式墙体、别致的园路铺装、木质叠台、木质花架甚至假山叠水。别墅景观设计是指在特定地形中创造一种相对独立的形态,具有一定的社会文化内涵、观赏功能、环境改善和使用功能,能够通过其内涵引发人们的情感、兴趣、联想、共情等心理反映,即所谓的景观效果。
            The hard scenery of the villa mainly includes tall and solid Yellowstone retaining wall, castle wall, chic garden road pavement, wooden folding platform, wooden flower rack and even rockery folding water. Villa landscape design refers to the creation of a relatively independent form in a specific terrain, which has certain social and cultural connotation, viewing function, environmental improvement and use function, and can trigger people's emotion, interest, association, empathy and other psychological reactions through its connotation, that is, the so-called landscape effect.
            1)高大坚实的黄石挡土墙:是山庄的特色景观,也是其他别墅无法复制的文化元素之一,在处理高差较大的地形时,不能被过多的植被遮挡,而要巧妙地展现出来,在铺设挡土墙时,挡土墙顶面要保持水平,挡土墙落差每阶段不能>1.0m,黄石面要高于挡土墙顶面。相邻道路中线高程0.8米。围栏应统一样式,围栏站内每根栏杆长度为1.5m~3.0m适宜;
            1) Tall and solid Huangshi retaining wall: it is the characteristic landscape of the villa and one of the cultural elements that cannot be copied by other villas. When dealing with the terrain with large elevation difference, it should not be covered by too much vegetation, but should be displayed skillfully. When laying the retaining wall, the top surface of the retaining wall should be kept horizontal, the drop of the retaining wall should not be more than 1.0m at each stage, and the Huangshi surface should be higher than the top surface of the retaining wall. The central line elevation of adjacent roads is 0.8m. The fence shall be of uniform style, and the length of each railing in the fence station shall be 1.5m ~ 3.0m, which is suitable;
            2)园路路面:人行主入口道路面宽度不宜小于1.5m,适宜值为1.8m~3.0m。路面材料一般为天然或羊毛石,厚度为18mm~20mm。颜色以冷暖色或暗浅色为主,以暖色和浅色为主。室外台阶宽度和高度值为(300~330)mm×150mm,台阶面板厚度约50mm,顶盖面板厚度约50mm~80mm;
            2) Garden Road Pavement: the pavement width of the main pedestrian entrance road should not be less than 1.5m, and the appropriate value is 1.8m ~ 3.0m. The pavement material is generally natural or wool stone, with a thickness of 18mm ~ 20mm. The colors are mainly cold and warm colors or dark and light colors, and mainly warm and light colors. The width and height of outdoor steps are (300 ~ 330) mm × 150mm, the thickness of step panel is about 50mm, and the thickness of top cover panel is about 50mm ~ 80mm;
            3)室外防腐木制品:一定要做好防腐防水处理,常用的室外防腐木制品尺寸有:木垛台厚度25mm~38mm,木栏杆高度适宜值0.95m~1.05m,木栏杆柱适宜值120mm~140mm,木花架柱适宜值150mm~180mm,花架条和横梁适宜值(50~70)×(150~180)mm,木花箱高度适宜值450mm~600mm,不宜>800mm。
            3) Outdoor anti-corrosion wood products: anti-corrosion and waterproof treatment must be done well. The commonly used outdoor anti-corrosion wood products include: the thickness of wooden crib is 25mm ~ 38mm, the appropriate height of wooden railing is 0.95m ~ 1.05M, the appropriate value of wooden railing column is 120mm ~ 140mm, the appropriate value of wooden flower rack column is 150mm ~ 180mm, and the appropriate value of flower rack strip and beam is 50 ~ 70 × (150 ~ 180) mm, the appropriate height of the wooden flower box is 450mm ~ 600mm, and should not be > 800mm.
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